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CANVAS produces a weekly report on several countries where nonviolent resistance can play an important role in confronting challenges to democracy, including Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mexico, Syria, the United States, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe.

Weekly report: June 16th, 2017

Credits: EPA/MIGUEL GUTIERREZ

Credits: EPA/MIGUEL GUTIERREZ

Cambodia

On Wednesday, Prime Minister Hun Sen lifted an order exiling Sam Rainsy, the former opposition leader who previously served as the President of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP). It remains uncertain whether Mr. Rainsy will be imprisoned upon his return; without a royal pardon, the likelihood of arrest appears high in the face of numerous convictions amassed against him for criticizing the government and alleging the state had ordered the assassinations of political analyst Kem Ley.

The local (commune) elections on June 4 led to a narrow victory for Prime Minister Hun Sen’s Cambodian People’s Party, but the process was criticized by Human Rights Watch as neither free or fair due to threats to free speech and imprisonment of political opponents. Nevertheless, the CNRP garnered almost half of the votes, signalling the possibility of strong competition in the 2018 Parliamentary elections. Mr. Rainsy has said he will run for Prime Minister Hun Sen’s position in next year’s elections.

  1. https://www.cambodiadaily.com/news/hun-sen-lifts-ban-but-will-sam-rainsy-come-back-131364/
  2. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/06/12/cambodia-commune-elections-not-free-or-fair


Democratic Republic of the Congo

Nine former African presidents and former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan have warned that the ongoing political crisis in the DRC stemming from President Joseph Kabila’s refusal to step down at the end of his constitutional mandate and the failure to organize an election to replace him puts the country’s future in “grave danger.” A December agreement between Kabila’s ruling coalition and opposition leaders requires that an election be held before the end of the year, however it appears increasingly unlikely that one will take place in the face of significant delays in voter registration and mobilizing financing.

The DRC is also facing a health crisis, as it was reported this week that two outbreaks of vaccine-derived polio, which occurs in areas with low immunization rates and is exacerbated in communities with poor sanitation, have been identified in the country. At least four cases of the disease have been identified, and the World Health Organization has warned that there is a high risk that the virus could spread.

  1. http://www.reuters.com/article/congo-politics-idUSL8N1JD15E
  2. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-40272863

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Mexico

A new report by Amnesty International criticizes treatment of asylum seekers by Mexico and the United States after the Trump administration enacted stricter immigration measures with the Executive Order on Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements on January 25, 2017. The report, based on extensive field research on the US-Mexican border since February 2017, cites the endangerment of asylum seekers trying to cross the Mexican border into the United States.

The report claims that people fleeing violence in El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala are being turned away or held in overcrowded detention centers without the option to claim asylum, and are often turned back to Mexico, which in turn deports them back to their countries of origin – a violation of international law. Amnesty International’s Americas Director, Erika Guevara-Rosas, stated that the United States and Mexico are “partners in crime” in the push-backs, which Guevara-Rosas deemed a “burgeoning human rights catastrophe.”

  1. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/06/usa-mexico-trumps-border-crackdown-pushes-refugees-into-dangerous-limbo/

Syria

Humanitarian agencies and human rights organizations are growing increasingly concerned after a UN panel noted that the intensifying airstrikes by the American-led coalition against Islamic State targets in Syria have killed hundreds of civilians in and around Raqqa, and have displaced 160,000 people. Focusing on American military conduct for the first time since the conflict in Syria began, the panel stated that the intensification of airstrikes in the campaign to retake Raqqa has taken a remarkable civilian toll, and resulted in a “staggering loss of civilian life.” Groups monitoring the conflict’s effect on civilians have voiced their increasing concern over these developments, which was further underscored last week by reports that coalition forces had used munitions containing white phosphorous, which is banned in populated areas under international law.

1.https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/14/world/middleeast/syria-airstrikes-civilians.html?mcubz=0

Venezuela

Protesters set fire to the Supreme Court in Venezuela on Monday, continuing three months of unrest throughout Venezuela. The violence broke out after the Supreme Court voted to reject a measure to prevent President Nicolas Maduro from rewriting the country’s constitution by electing a constituent assembly. The legal challenge was brought by Luisa Ortega, a former ally of President Maduro who now opposes the regime; Ms. Ortega has also alleged that 13 judges appointed to the court in 2015 were put there illegally and should be replaced.

Last week, the head of Venezuela’s National Defence Council, Alexis López Ramírez, resigned over President Maduro’s plans to create the constituent assembly, citing disagreement with how the members would be selected and the way it was convened. In the face of triple-digit inflation, as well as dire shortages of food and medicine, protesters demand President Maduro’s resignation and are calling for elections.

  1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-40272503
  2. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/06/13/venezuela-protesters-set-fire-supreme-court-building-crisis/

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Zimbabwe

The leader of Zimbabwe’s opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirayi (MDCT), is launching a challenge 93-year-old President Robert Mugabe in next year’s general election. This will be the fourth time Morgan Tzvangirai has challenged President Mugabe in a presidential election. Mugabe’s Zanu-PF party is campaigning to win over voters, particularly the youth, amid frustration at high unemployment, skyrocketing inflation, and a breakdown in social services.

Meanwhile, Zimbabwe’s Catholic Bishops have made an appeal to President Mugabe and other political leaders to reject violence and coercion in the 2018 general elections, and urged leaders to respect the Constitution of Zimbabwe, which deems that elections should be free and fair.

  1. http://www.thetablet.co.uk/news/7273/0/ahead-of-elections-zimbabwe-bishops-appeal-to-mugabe-s-government-to-reject-violence-and-coercion
  2. http://www.aljazeera.com/video/news/2017/06/zimbabwe-opposition-campaigns-youth-vote-election-170611060457500.html

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United States

Officials say that the special counsel overseeing the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election has widened the probe to include whether President Trump attempted to obstruct justice. The obstruction of justice investigation into Trump, who previously was not personally under investigation, began days after FBI Director James Comey was fired on May 9. Comey testified last week before the Senate Intelligence Committee that he believed that he was fired “in some way, to change — or the endeavor was to change the way the Russia investigation was being conducted.” Officials have also stated that investigators are also now looking for evidence of possible financial crimes committed by Trump associates.

Also this week, 196 Democratic members of Congress agreed to file a lawsuit against Trump, alleging that he is in violation of the foreign emoluments clause of the Constitution, which restricts the acceptance of gifts and benefits from foreign leaders. The lawsuit, which is one of several that have been recently filed alleging constitutional violations stemming from Trump’s business ties, has so far drawn more congressional plaintiffs than any legal action previously taken against a president, although so far no Republicans have joined. The suit alleges that by retaining interests in his businesses, Trump may be receiving benefits from foreign states without Congressional approval.

Additionally, in a serious incident on Wednesday a lone gunman opened fire on members of the Republican congressional baseball team as they practiced for an annual charity game that takes place between Democratic and Republican members of Congress. Four people were injured, including House majority whip Steve Scalise, who is still in critical condition. Information is still coming out about the gunman,James Hodgkinson, who was killed in the shootout, but he appears to have had a record of domestic violence and was a fervent opponent of President Trump. The incident, although there was a great deal of unity and solidarity between Democrats and Republicans in its immediate aftermath, will likely set off a renewed debate over gun control policies, which tends to be contentious and highly partisan in the US.

  1. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/special-counsel-is-investigating-trump-for-possible-obstruction-of-justice/2017/06/14/9ce02506-5131-11e7-b064-828ba60fbb98_story.html?utm_term=.5091b706450d
  2. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/congressional-democrats-to-file-emoluments-lawsuit-against-trump/2017/06/13/270e60e6-506d-11e7-be25-3a519335381c_story.html?utm_term=.034669330b7a
  3. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/14/us/steve-scalise-congress-shot-alexandria-virginia.html?mcubz=0

Weekly report: June 12th, 2017

Omar Havana/Al Jazeera

Omar Havana/Al Jazeera

Cambodia

Cambodia had its nation-wide commune elections on Sunday which resulted in significant gains for the opposition CNRP party, despite a general victory for the ruling CPP. CNRP received 46 percent of the vote, an increase from 30 percent in the last local elections in 2012; CPP received 51 percent, down from 62 percent in 2012.

The election had its fair share of problems, though they pale in comparison to the 2013 national elections which featured a riot in Phnom Penh, voters being chased from polling stations, widespread voter list problems, registration rates exceeding 125 percent in some provinces, and a yearlong opposition boycott of parliament over the results. This year, a handful of CNRP voters were temporarily detained, 12 election observers were illegally booted from their polling stations, and soldiers were seemingly stationed in communes with tight races in order to swat the vote in the ruling party’s favor. Still, the election proceedings earned praise from the UN for being successful.

  1. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/cambodia-opposition-claim-gains-local-elections-170604200114256.html
  2. http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/smooth-elections-sound-strategy-least-now


Democratic Republic of the Congo

On Friday the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein called for an international investigation into widespread human rights violations and abuses committed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Kasai region. At least 42 mass graves have been found in the area, which since last August has been facing increased violence between militia and government forces, and the UN fears that the actual number of graves may be higher. Violence in the DRC has risen nationally since President Joseph Kabila decided to stay in power beyond the end of his mandate, which ended in December 2016.

  1. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-congo-violence-un-idUSKBN1901AZ
  2. http://ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21714&LangID=E

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Mexico

In a political litmus test for Mexico’s upcoming 2018 national elections, a gubernatorial election for Mexico’s most populous state ended in victory for the ruling party. According to the preliminary results are being reported, the ruling PRI candidate won with 33.7 percent, and the left-wing MORENA candidate received 30.8 percent. MORENA leader and favorite candidate for 2018, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, has already said that he would demand an examination of ballots, suggesting that PRI had engaged in fraud to win the election.

Another journalist has been shot this week, and is currently at an Acapulco hospital in serious condition. Marcela de Jesus Natalia is a journalist who hosts a program on an indigenous radio station in the state of Guerrero. She hadn’t previously had any known threats.

  1. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/05/world/americas/mexico-pri-party-state-election.html?_r=0
  2. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/another-journalist-shot-seriously-wounded-in-south-mexico/2017/06/03/39edc22a-48c4-11e7-8de1-cec59a9bf4b1_story.html?utm_term=.3d59323b5a6b

Syria

On Wednesday US-backed Kurdish and Arab forces entered the Islamic State’s de facto capital of Raqqa, beginning what could potentially be a months-long campaign to reclaim ISIS’s largest stronghold in Syria. If successful, the operation, led by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and backed by US airpower, would strip ISIS of its second largest city; a simultaneous campaign to retake the largest city is already underway in Mosul, Iraq.

The campaign to retake the city, where tens of thousands are thought to still be residing, has not been without controversy. Images and witness reports from Raqqa suggest that the US-led coalition may have used munitions loaded with white phosphorous, the use of which international law prohibits in populated areas. International law does not prohibit militaries from possessing and using white phosphorous outright, and many Western militaries utilize it to create smoke screens and conceal troop movements. However, it can also be used as an incendiary weapon, and is therefore banned in civilian areas. The spokesman for the taskforce would not discuss the use of specific munitions as a matter of policy, and the use of the substance in populated areas has yet to be confirmed.

  1. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/08/us-shoots-down-drone-syria
  2. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/08/us-backed-forces-fighting-islamic-state-enter-syria-stronghold-of-raqqa
  3. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-raqqa-idUSKBN1910FE?il=0
  4. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/10/world/middleeast/raqqa-syria-white-phosphorus.html

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United States

On Thursday, former FBI Director James Comey testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee in a highly anticipated congressional hearing. In his more than two hours of public testimony, Comey calmly leveled severe accusations and sharp criticisms at President Donald Trump.  Under oath, Comey accused the president of firing him in an attempt to undermine the FBI’s investigation into possible collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia’s alleged efforts to influence the 2016 presidential election. Specifically, Comey stated that he believed that Trump directed him to drop an FBI probe into his former national security advisor Michael Flynn that was taking place as a part of the broader Russia investigation. Comey, who was fired by Trump on May 9, went on to state “It’s my judgment that I was fired because of the Russia investigation. I was fired, in some way, to change — or the endeavor was to change the way the Russia investigation was being conducted.” Critics of Donald Trump say that any such efforts by the president to hinder an FBI investigation could amount to obstruction of justice.

Trump, in response, branded Comey a “leaker” and a “liar,” but stated that he believed that the testimony afforded him “total and complete vindication.” Asked if he would be willing to say that under oath and give his version of events, Trump replied “100%.”

  1. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-russia-idUSKBN18Z0HC
  2. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/comey-testimony-trump-senate-hearing/2017/06/07/afadf87c-4bd0-11e7-bc1b-fddbd8359dee_story.html?utm_term=.577b9a5aeb6a
  3. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/11/james-comey-testimony-donald-trump-tapes-leak

Venezuela

In the latest regional outcry regarding Venezuela’s ongoing crisis, Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski has called for international arbitration in Venezuela, but only after political prisoners are released. He said that no dialogue could be possible unless they were let out. He suggested that after this demand was met, then three friendly nations could join three more critical countries to provide international arbitration for the crisis.

Meanwhile, President Maduro has said that he will be writing to the Pope asking him to mediate the political conflict because he alleges that the opposition parties have been “training children for terrorist groups” because so many teenagers are participating in the protests. He has referred to the protesters as terrorist groups often in the past. This is seemingly a response to the death of a 17-year-old last week during protests in Caracas. Witnesses said he died after being hit in the chest by a tear-gas canister fired by police, but the administration is claiming he died from a “homemade explosive.” The Venezuelan chief prosecutor’s office has ordered an investigation into the matter. The death toll since the start of the protests in April has now surpassed 80.

  1. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/world/article/perus-leader-calls-for-arbitration-in-venezuela-crisis
  2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-politics-idUSKBN19304Y
  3. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-40200694

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Zimbabwe

President Robert Mugabe went on a speaking tour across Zimbabwe last week in an early campaign push for the 2018 elections, which came right after his week-long trip to Cancún for a conference on disaster risk reduction. Promptly after, in a move that raised many eyebrows, he left for New York for yet another summit, the UN summit on oceans. Being that Zimbabwe is a landlocked country, this trip seems to be less relevant than the one before. The 93-year-old president has received a great deal of criticism for his frequent overseas trips while his country continues to buckle under a cash shortage. Still, he and his ruling party are pushing ahead for the 2018 elections.

First Lady Grace Mugabe has meanwhile blasted NGOs working in Zimbabwe: “We are having a bumper harvest this year so there is no need for NGOs anymore. We don’t need them anymore because they always want to come here and disturb our politics.” President Mugabe has made these accusations to NGOs prior to all previous general elections. The organizations in question again denied the allegations of political meddling, noting that they work to provide aid to the country because of “the government’s incompetence and failure to feed [its] starving communities.”

  1. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/02/robert-mugabe-begins-zimbabwe-speaking-tour-aged-93
  2. http://www.news24.com/Africa/Zimbabwe/mugabe-off-to-ny-for-oceans-summit-but-zimbabwe-is-landlocked-20170604
  3. http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2017/06/ngos-not-welcome-zimbabwe-says-mugabes-wife-grace/